Journal paper published in Sensors2020, 20(14),
Reducing energy consumption is one of the most important task of the approaching Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm. Existing communication standards, such as 3G/4G, use complex protocols (active mode, sleep modes) in order to address the waste of energy. These protocols are forced to transmit when one frame is only partially filled with information symbols. The hard task to adapt the power-saving mode with low latency to the discontinuity of the source is mainly due to the fact that the receiver cannot know a priori when the source has something to transmit. In this paper, we propose a modified signalling/constellation which can save energy by mapping a zero-energy symbol in the information source. This paper addresses the fundamentals of this new technique: the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) criterion, the probability of error, the (energy) entropy, the (energy) capacity as well as the energy cost of the proposed technique are derived for the binary signalling case.